How Can the Church Reclaim Backsliders? Analysis of Church Education to Reclaim Backsliders


  • Kyaw Myint Htay Biblical Institut of Theology Insein
  • Tony Salurante Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Injili Arastamar (SETIA) Jakarta



backsliders, theological education, church education, reclaim backsliders


Backsliding is a problem occurring among Christians in Myanmar. The author focuses this research on seeking several solutions to the issue of backsliding among Christians in Myanmar by comparing it with the Reformed worldview. The analytical focus is on the educational aspect in the church to address backsliding based on the Reformed worldview. This research was conducted in several stages, including problem identification and its causes, proposing problem-solving ideas. The researcher conducted interviews among Christians and elaborated with various other literary sources. The research findings reveal that the church needs to teach sound doctrines that can help its members grow in their faith and withstand difficult times. Political and religious issues are inseparable, but the fundamental problem is the need for contextual churches. The church needs to love and care for its flock. Additionally, the research finds that contextual churches require influence in every public area. Church leaders in urban areas need to be more educated and aware of the views and sensitivities of various ethnic, class, race, and religious groups. The church, as the body of Christ, should be able to communicate the Word of God honestly and accurately to its members and ensure that they are engaged in Bible classes or groups where they can learn and enjoy fellowship with fellow believers to strengthen their faith. 


Anderson, G. H. (1968). Burmese Church in the Middle of the Pagoda. In Christ and Crisis in Southeast Asia. Friendship Press.

Anierobi, C., & Obasi, C. O. (2021). Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration: Toward Involving the Church in Addressing Pro-Poor Urban Housing Challenges in Enugu, Nigeria. SAGE Open, 11(3), 215824402110401.

Bavinck, H. (2004). Reformed Dogmatics, Vol. 2: God and Creation (J. Bolt (ed.)). Baker Academic.

Bavinck, H. (2008). Reformed Dogmatics: Volume 4: Holy Spirit, Church, and New Creation (J. Bolt (ed.)). Bacer Academic.

Bennett, M. (2020). Concerning ecclesiology: Four barriers preventing insider movement contextualization from producing biblical churches. Missiology: An International Review, 48(4), 392–409.

Calvin, J. (2011). The Institutes Of The Christian Religion (H. Beveridge (ed.)). Pacific Publishing Studio.

Chandler, D. J. (2017). African American Spirituality: Through Another Lens. Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care, 10(2), 159–181.

Darmawan, I. P. A., & Purnamawati, Y. (2023). Concept of Imago Dei, and Implication for Christian Education. Abraka Journal Of Religion and Philosophy, 3(2), 385–417.

de Beer, F. J. (2020). The ecclesiastical difficulty of Ephesians 4:1–6 in view of the different perspectives on the baptism in the Holy Spirit and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. In Die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, 54(1).

Demesi, A., Kithinji, C., & Kibaara, J. M. (2022). Influence of Individualized Consideration among TCL Graduates on Church Performance in Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 11(4).

Dorp, A. van. (2022). Ethnic Diversity and Reconciliation: A Missional Model for the Church in Myanmar. Langham Publishing.

Dreyer, W. A. (2020). A theological response to collective trauma in South Africa. In Die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, 54(1).

East, B. (2015). An undefensive presence: the mission and identity of the church in Kathryn Tanner and John Howard Yoder. Scottish Journal of Theology, 68(3), 327–344.

Elsner, R. (2023). Praying Instead of Protesting? The Belarusian Churches and Political Protest After the 2020 Presidential Election. Nationalities Papers, 51(4), 770–786.

Fuller, A. (1840). The Backslider. American Tract Society.

Giudici, S., & Selvam, S. G. (2023). Integration of Social Critical Consciousness in Missionary Methodology for Social Transformation. Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies, 40(1), 34–48.

Glendinning, T. (2013). The Public Presence of Religion in Western Europe: its social significance among religious constituencies lying between the secular and churchgoing Christians? International Journal of Social Science Studies, 2(1).

Gobster, P. H. (2010). Urban Ecological Restoration. Nature and Culture, 5(3), 227–230.

Goheen, M. W., & Bartolomew, C. B. (2008). Living at the Crossroads: An Introduction to Christian Worldview. Baker Academic.

Guarino, M. (2022). Secondary burials in Naples in the modern and contemporary age: A review. Ethics, Medicine and Public Health, 22, 100793.

Gushiken, K. M. (2015). Cultivating Healthy Discipleship Settings in Multi-Ethnic Churches. Transformation, 32(1), 17–26.

Habib, M. R. (2021). The “stateless” Rohingya in Bangladesh: Crisis management and policy responses. Asian Politics & Policy, 13(4), 577–596.

Han, J., Meng, Y., & Qin, S. (2018). House Church: Investigating Chinese Urban Christians’ Choice of Religious Practicing Site in Wuhan, China. Religions, 9(4), 100.

Herwinesastra, Luther, H., & Rostiani. (2023). The Pastor ’ s Role in Effectively Managing the Congregation ’ s Potential: A Case Study in GKII Gracia Sintang. Evangelikal: Jurnal Teologi Injili Dan Pembinaan Warga Jemaat, 7(1), 63–71.

Hoffecker, W. A. (1986). Building a Christian World View: Vol. 1, God, Man, and Knowledge. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company.

Isaac, E. P. (2005). The Future of Adult Education in the Urban African American Church. Education and Urban Society, 37(3), 276–291.

Jatmiko, B., Darmawan, I. P. A., & Guild, R. J. (2024). Take My Yoke and Learn of Me: Matthew 11:28-30 and Hospitality in Theological Education in Indonesia. DUNAMIS: Jurnal Teologi Dan Pendidikan Kristiani, 8(2).

Jayaram V. (2019). The Buddha on God. Hinduwebsite.Com.

Kam, C. D. (1997). Christian mission to Buddhists in Myanmar: a study of past, present, and future approaches by Baptists [United Theological Seminary].

Keck, T. M. (2023). Erosion, Backsliding, or Abuse: Three Metaphors for Democratic Decline. Law & Social Inquiry, 48(1), 314–339.

Kursa, S. (2016). Ochrona Ortodoksyjnej Wiary W Ustawodawstwie Justyniana. Zeszyty Prawnicze, 12(2), 5.

Labobar, K. (2024). DAMAI Model as a Prototype of Religious Moderation. Evangelikal: Jurnal Teologi Injili Dan Pembinaan Warga Jemaat, 8(1), 76–90.

le Roux, S., Denton, R. A., Malan, L., & Malan, N. T. (2022). Coping with chronic stress during COVID-19 and beyond – A faith perspective. In Die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, 56(1).

Leonard, R., & Bellamy, J. (2010). The relationship between bonding and bridging social capital among Christian denominations across Australia. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 20(4), 445–460.

Mantsinen, T. T., & Tervo-Niemelä, K. (2020). Leaving Christianity. In Handbook of Leaving Religion (pp. 67–80). BRILL.

Mary, E., Udau, S., & Darmawan, I. P. A. (2022). Theological knowledge internalization in man and sin doctrine learning. International Journal of Humanities and Innovation (IJHI), 5(1), 1–7.

Milner, B. C. (2022). The Marks of the Church. In Calvin’s Doctrine of the Church (pp. 99–133). BRILL.

Montang, R. D., Andi, S., Anthoni, J., Wattimury, W. A., Elias, T. F. E., & Watak, S. R. (2023). The Holy Bible as the Word of God. Pharos Journal of Theology, 104(3).

Nahnfeldt, C., & Lindberg, M. (2017). Gendered Potentials and Delimitations in the Church of Sweden’s Social Innovation. Diaconia, 8(1), 3–22.

Nche, G. C. (2020). The Church Climate Action: Identifying the Barriers and the Bridges. Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies, 37(3), 222–241.

Patriarca, C., Sirugo, G., & Barbareschi, M. (2022). Jewish anatomic pathologists in the time of Italian Racial Laws. Pathologica, 114(2), 179–184.

Rahman, M. S., & Sakib, N. H. (2021). Statelessness, forced migration and the security dilemma along borders: an investigation of the foreign policy stance of Bangladesh on the Rohingya influx. SN Social Sciences, 1(7), 160.

Ribbens, M., & De Beer, S. F. (2017). Churches claiming a right to the city? Lived urbanisms in the City of Tshwane. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 73(3).

Sanicki, A., & Mannell, J. (2015). HIV-positive African-American women’s perspectives on engaging communities in the response to HIV/AIDS in Washington, D.C. AIDS Care, 27(10), 1213–1219.

Shin, J. J. (2023). Casting a Vision of Communal and Public Life of the Church for the Post-Pandemic Korean-American Churches: Focusing on Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen’s Communion and Public Ecclesiology. International Bulletin of Mission Research, 47(3), 416–429.

Silton, N. R., Flannelly, K. J., Ellison, C. G., Galek, K., Jacobs, M. R., Marcum, J. P., & Silton, F. J. (2011). The Association between Religious Beliefs and Practices and End-of-Life Fears among Members of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A). Review of Religious Research, 53(3), 357–370.

Soe, M. (2014). Culture & Beyond Myanmar (Second). Pyi Aye Family Press.

Swart, I., & De Beer, S. (2014). Doing urban public theology in South Africa: Introducing a new agenda. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 70(3).

Tarugarira, G., & Moyo, A. (2020). Money Dwells in the Spiritual Pocket! The Gospel of Prosperity and the Empowerment of Women through Talents/’Matarenda among ZAOGA FIF Adherents in Gweru, Zimbabwe. Journal for the Study of Religion, 33(1).

Teizazu, H., Gruer, C., Mandara, E., & Sommer, M. (2023). Exploring a faith-based approach to puberty education in Tanzania. Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 5.

Toryough, G. N., & Okanlawon, S. O. (2014). The Blessing of Abraham: Seeking an Interpretative Link between Genesis 12:1-3 and Galatians 3:13-16. Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies, 4(1), 123–136.

van den Bogert, K. (2018). Religious superdiversity and intersectionality on the field. Tijdschrift Voor Genderstudies, 21(1), 27–44.

Van Den Toren, B. (2012). The Relationship between Christ and the Spirit in a Christian Theology of Religions. Missiology: An International Review, 40(3), 263–280.

van Engen, C., & Tiersma, J. (1994). God so Loves the City. MARC.

Van Rheede van Oudtshoorn, D. A. (2015). Symbolising salvation: A semiotic analysis of the church as a transformative communication system in the world. Verbum et Ecclesia, 36(1).

Wambugu, P. M., Kagema, D. N., & Micheni, S. (2022). Biblical and theological basis for church involvement in community development in Kenya. Journal of Pastoral and Practical Theology (JPPT), 1(1).

Williamson, W. P. (2020). Conjectures and Controversy in the Study of Fundamentalism. Brill Research Perspectives in Religion and Psychology, 2(3), 1–94.

Yip, M. K.-C., Lee, J. W.-Y., & Tang, W.-S. (2020). From God’s home to people’s house: Property struggles of church redevelopment. Geoforum, 110, 14–24.

Zarns, P. (2023). Ekklēsia: Contending for Church as ‘People’. Ecclesiology, 19(1), 50–69.

Zscheile, D. (2014). Forming and restoring community in a nomadic world: A next generation perspective on the future of the discipline of missiology. Missiology: An International Review, 42(1), 26–38.